Through your travels you will discover a space anomaly, it's uncertain exactly how many warps it will take to reach your first one but with roughly 5-6 you should encounter your first. Enter the anomaly and speak with the ominous sentient mass. After this, you will be able to acquire the recipe for an atlas pass, commonly used to access locked sections of certain areas. Atlas V2 and V3 are upgraded versions of the atlas pass, both of which are found through randomized exploration. Though there isn't a specific path to acquiring these, they are commonly found from interacting with terminals at colonial outposts.