Interacting effectively with the world around you is paramount to acquiring upgrades, blueprints, and information. You do this by expanding your knowledge of language systems used throughout the galaxy. There are three languages; Gex, Korvax, and Vy'keen, and 3 main ways to expand upon your knowledge of them.
MONOLITHS AND RUINS
Interacting with these will prompt you to perform an action. It's essentially a test of your moral compass, and you will be rewarded for your response. It seems that the Gek prefer responsibility, the Vy'keen are fond of warrior acumen and honor (like Klingons) and the Korvax focus on intelligence and discovery. Answering in a way that is sufficient will earn you knowledge of the language, or some potential upgrade.
These small stones glow light blue once activated and offer you a single word in the prominent language of that star system.
SPEAK TO ALIENS
When you approach most outposts and space stations for the first time, you will be greeted by an alien requesting assistance in some way. It always pertains to a resource that the alien needs. Two of those options will open an opportunity to gain knowledge about the alien language. Simply request help with the language.